Defining Inclusion (Features, Policies, and Best Practices) Early childhood inclusion embodies the values, policies, and practices that support the right of every infant and young child and his or her family, regardless of ability, to participate in a broad range of activities and contexts as full members of families, communities, and society. The desired results of inclusive experiences for children with and without disabilities and their families include a sense of belonging and membership, positive social relationships and friendships, and development and learning to reach their full potential. The defining features of inclusion that can be used to identify high quality early childhood programs and services are access, participation, and supports. - A Joint Position of the Division of Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Defining Features of Inclusion Create accessible learning environments (Access) Access means providing the children in your program with a wide range of learning opportunities, activities and environments that accommodate and respond to individual differences. This can be done by: Removing barriers and making sure all items and materials are reachable and accessible Offering multiple ways to engage with toys, materials and activities Providing different ways for children to express what they know Providing flexible learning opportunities for children who have different ways or styles of learning Using technology, tools, and devices that support a child's play and learning Making individualized modifications and/or adaptations to support a child's learning Examples: Adapting Toys and Materials to Meet a Variety of Needs - pdf Adapting Toys Tip Sheet Examples of Environmental Modifications Routine in a Program (Frank Porter Graham CONNECT Modules) - video Making Individualized Modifications to Curriculum or Activities - Blank Form Filled-in Example Additional Resources: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Encourage play, learning, and membership (Participation) Participation means using a wide range of teaching approaches that promote engagement, learning, interaction and a sense of belonging. This can be done by: Designing activities based on a child's interests as well as abilities Providing opportunities for children to interact and work together Supporting and guiding a child as they learn or acquire a new skill Teaching specific skills to a child in naturally occurring activities and routines and alongside their peers Examples: Promoting young children's participation in activities and routines - pdf Embedded Interventions (FPG CONNECT Modules) - video Embedded Learning Opportunities (Head Start Center for Inclusion) Encouraging Peer Interaction (FPG CONNECT Modules) - video Additional Resources: A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare by Mark Sweet (See page 28 - Inclusion - Many ways to participate) Helping parents and providers find information and assistance (Support) Support refers to the broader early childhood system and services that assist parents and providers in supporting the practice of inclusion, as well as the opportunities available for collaborating and for building partnerships. Locating Professional Development (PD) opportunities for you and/or your staff in order to learn about best practices for supporting children with various abilities Collaborating with parents or other service professionals who play important roles in the child's life Requesting training in order to gain information that will help you improve the way you work with the children in your program Examples: Professional Development Opportunities Models of consultation (e.g., Training and Technical Assistance, practice-based coaching, etc.) Family, provider and professional partnerships Additional Resources: The Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (ECTAC) Support Resources for Families of Children with Special Needs and Disabilities (Department of Children and Families) Supplying tools to help improve access and participation (Assistive Technology) Assistive technology (AT) is any tool or device that a child uses to perform a task that they may not otherwise be able to do. It may be a simple "low tech" device such as a pencil grip or an expensive "high tech" device such as a iPad or specialized communication device. Many programs have found creative solutions to problems by making inexpensive modifications to toys and utensils using items that are readily available. It's important to remember that before making any modifications or introducing an assistive technology device into a child's daily routines, you should first discuss the decision with the family and/or a qualified professional. The following resources can help providers with assistive technology questions: Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (ECTAC Head Start) Examples: Let's Participate: Assistive Technology Supports - Fact Sheets CONNECT Module 5: Assistive Technology Examples of Assistive Technology Equipment - pdf Examples of Assistive Technology Adaptations - pdf Policy and Position Statements Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services Joint Policy Statements Policy Statement on Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Programs This policy was released on September 14, 2015, by the Department of Education (DOE) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). It states that "all young children with disabilities should have access to inclusive high-quality early childhood programs, where they are provided with individualized and appropriate support in meeting high expectations." The policy statement was written with the input of early learning professionals, families, and other early learning stakeholders. Though it focuses on including young children with disabilities, it is the DOE’s and DHHS’s shared vision that all people be meaningfully included in all facets of society throughout the course of their lives. This begins in early childhood programs and continues into schools, places of employment, and the broader community. Policy Statement on Expulsion and Suspension Practices in Early Childhood Settings The DOE and DHHS issued this policy statement to assist States and their public and private local early childhood programs in severely limiting and preventing expulsions and suspensions in early learning settings. Recent data indicates that expulsions and suspensions occur with regularity in preschool settings, a serious concern given the well-established research that indicates how these practices can influence a number of adverse outcomes across development, health, and education. Policy Statement on Family Engagement: From the Early Years to the Early Grades When families and the institutions where children learn partner in meaningful ways, children have more positive attitudes toward school, stay in school longer, have better attendance, and experience more school success. To further this position, the DOE and DHHS released this policy statement on the implementation of effective family engagement practices in early childhood and learning programs. Policy Statement on Supporting the Development of Children who are Dual Language Learners in Early Childhood Programs It is the vision of the DOE and DHHS that all early childhood programs adequately and appropriately serve the diverse children and families that make up this country. Programs should foster their cognitive, linguistic, social emotional, and physical development and prepare them for success in school and beyond. Additional Resources: Joint Interdepartmental Review of All Early Learning Programs for Children Less Than 6 Years of Age U.S. Department of Early Learning Web Site (includes tabs for Inclusion, Families, etc.) Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Position Statements Early Childhood Inclusion: A Joint Position Statement of the DEC and National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) - Spanish Version Promoting the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Children with Disabilities and Developmental Delays Position Statement on Challenging Behavior and Young Children Additional Resource: NAEYC Position Statements and Standards Child Development Developmental Screenings and Assessments A developmental screening provides information on how a child's development compares with that of other children their same age. A developmental screening is one tool that is used to identify children whose development and skills may be below those of their typically developing peers and therefore be at risk of a developmental delay or other disability. Early identification of developmental differences has been shown to have a significant impact on a child's continued well-being and success. Effective screening requires time, preparation, communication, and follow-through. It is important to see parents and families as key sources of information and equal partners in the process. As part of the screening process, be sure to: Explain what a screening is and why it is being done Review the purpose and overall goals of the screening Provide information for any terms you use that may be difficult for the family, such as "developmental delay," "disability," and "evaluation," Discuss the results of the screening with the family and make recommendations to continue to support the child's development (e.g., suggested activities, community resources, referral options if necessary, etc.) If the child's developmental screening shows that their skills are below those of their typically developing peers, a more comprehensive assessment of the child's development may be recommended. If this is the case, a referral would be made to an early childhood specialist in the Department of Public Instruction or Department of Health Services depending on the age of the child and this specialist would be able to provide more information, as well as answer any questions a family may have about the process. It's important to understand that an assessment may be stressful and bring with it uncertainty, but the main purpose is to be able to gather more specific information so that informed decisions can be made that will support your child's overall growth and development in the future. Resources: Wisconsin's Blueprint: A Comprehensive and Aligned System for Early Childhood Screening and Assessment Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards Child Web Form - pdf Screening and Assessment Resources For more information on screening and assessment, contact your local Child Care Resource and Referral Agency, YoungStar Technical Consultant, or visit the Child Find page on Collaborating Partners website. Recommended Practices Child-Focused Practices Adults who work with and care for young children should be looking to design environments that promote child safety, active engagement, learning, participation, and membership. This includes practices that promote engagement, play, interaction and learning. These are accomplished by attending to or thinking about a child's preferences and interests, using novelty/newness, responsive toys, adequate amounts of materials and using defined spaces. Implementing child-focused practices involves a number of intentional actions on the part of the adult. Adults need to design environments that promote active engagement, learning and participation Adults need to use ongoing data to individualize and adapt practices to meet each child's needs Adults need to use specific practices across environments, activities and routines in order to target outcomes and promote learning and participation It's important to understand that all three of the above statements contain recommendations that should be used together, not individually. Learning how to effectively design and implement child-focused practices may require some training and/or support. As with any new skill, taking the extra time to learn about and practice will help to make things more manageable. Resources: Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) DAP For Preschoolers Division of Early Childhood (DEC) Recommended Practices Head Start Center for Inclusion: Individualizing Individualizing care for infants and toddlers (Early Head Start) Individualized Instruction - Head Start Webinar Embedding Learning Goals into Everyday Activities and Routines When designing activities for the children in your program, it's important that you take into account what skills each child is learning, what their interests are, and the way they learn best. This can, at first, seem like an overwhelming task, but the more you get to know each child in your program the easier it will become. The best way to begin is to think about where in your daily schedule or where within your room (e.g., sensory table, art, dramatic play, etc.) could you embed a learning opportunity or a time for the child to practice a particular skill. For example, if a child needs added opportunities to practice fine motor skills, such as picking up small pieces or using utensils (e.g., painting with a paintbrush, eating with a fork, coloring, etc.) then you can think about where in your daily schedule you could embed extra opportunities for them to practice. If they like to play Legos then make sure that you have those available for him during free play. Make a game out of snack time by having all the kids use a fork to pick up fruit snacks or a spoon to pick up fish crackers. Make the opportunities fun, interesting and as naturally occurring as possible. The object of embedding is to: Know the learning goals for the children in your program Think about where in your day you could provide opportunities for the child to practice the learning goal or skill Think about what the child(ren) enjoys doing and what interests them most Try to find naturally occurring times where the skills can be embedded and practiced (e.g., meal time, transitions, free play, outside, etc.) Resources: A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare: Getting to Know a Child (pages 10 and 47) Program Assessment Worksheet - Example -- Blank Template Embedded Interventions - Connect Module #1 (Frank Porter Graham, North Carolina) Social and Emotional Supports Social and Emotional Development refers to the skills necessary to foster secure attachment with adults, maintain healthy relationships, regulate one's behavior and emotions, and develop a healthy concept of personal identity. Positive social and emotional development provides an important foundation for lifelong development and learning. It helps children navigate new environments, facilitates the development of supportive relationships with peers and adults, and supports their ability to participate in learning activities. Unfortunately, when children lack the necessary social or emotional skills to function appropriately in a group setting, their behaviors become isolating. The children around them become afraid of their actions and reactions, while the adults are often unprepared for how to help the child learn more appropriate ways to regulate their behaviors. In the end, the child is met with a lack of support, skills, and friends; the exact opposite of what they really need. The following list of resources contain information and links that can help you support those children in your program that may be having difficulty regulating their emotions or making friends. Resources to Support Social and Emotional Development Self-Regulation Snapshots for Different Phases of Development Pyramid Model - Wisconsin Early Childhood Collaborating Partners Zero to Three - Early Connections Last a Lifetime Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center (ECLKC) Accentuating the Positive (Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (ECTA) Teaching Emotional Intelligence in Early Childhood (National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Building Environments that Encourage Positive Behavior (National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Social Emotional Teaching Strategies (TACSEI) Helping Preschoolers Understand their Emotions (Mind/Shift article) National Organizations Center on the Social Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention (TACSEI) Relationships and Family Engagement Partner with Families (Family-Focused Practices) Family-based practices offer the resources and supports necessary for families to have the time, energy, knowledge, and skills to give their children learning opportunities and experiences that promote development. Shared Responsibility Families and child care providers have a shared responsibility in making sure each child reaches educational success. Therefore, it is necessary that families and child care providers collaborate as a team in helping to support children. Positive results occur when families and early childhood professionals work together to identify and achieve the outcomes they want for children. Part of working together is sharing information on a regular basis, and as a child care professional, it is important to share information in a way that matches the family's level of understanding. Supports and Resources As you work with families, it is important to provide supports and resources that help to develop and strengthen knowledge, understanding, and positive parenting techniques. These supports should encourage and improve each family's ability to have the time to participate in activities they like to do as a family, including time for extended family and friends. Culturally Competent It is important to remember and understand that families and individual family members have different backgrounds, beliefs, and opinions about what is important and how support for the child should be implemented. Child care providers must be careful not to assume that all families have similar values to other families or to their own. Strength-Based Family-based practices must be built on the strengths and abilities of children and families in order to have best results. Effective family-based practices use these strengths and abilities as the building blocks for gaining new information and skills. Additional Resources: Talking About Children to their Parents A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 36 Communicating with Parents About Their Child A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 49 (Appendix 5) ASQ Screening Summary for Parents - word doc (sample) Partnering with Families on Embedded Interventions - pdf Strategies (cooperation and collaboration strategies for parents and providers) Build Relationships with Children, Families, Specialists and Special Education Professionals (Teaming and Collaboration) Collaboration, or creating a team, among key individuals is a cornerstone for creating high-quality early childhood inclusion, resources and program policies. These key individuals are families, practitioners, specialists, educators, and administrators. Working as a team is needed to promote multiple opportunities for communication and interaction among these groups. Teamwork among child care providers, early childhood educators, and specialists is difficult, but needed to provide quality care for children and services to families. One of the reasons teamwork is important is because of the strong recommendation that services to children with disabilities not only occur in the child's home, but also in other natural learning environments in which the child spends a significant time, such as child care programs. Team members work together to ensure that services and support are provided in the child's natural environment and that regular routines provide the most appropriate opportunities for the child's learning and his or her receiving of the selected services. In this teamwork model, individuals who represent a number of different professions work together to help children with disabilities and their families accomplish important goals. This model requires asking questions, providing suggestions, and working as a team with professionals, therapists, and specialists from Birth to 3, the school district, private organizations, and local disability agencies. For the benefit of the child, child care providers and educators must be open to learning from and sharing information with therapists and specialists who work with the child. Just as important, therapists and specialists must be open to listening to, learning from, and sharing information with child care providers and early childhood educators. Furthermore, this team approach is not limited to professionals, but also includes family members as part of the decision-making process. It is in the best interest of the child for all professionals working with the child to learn from one another, discover each other's skills, help one another, and respect each person's point of view. Strategies and Additional Resources Getting Started: Positive Beginning (What providers and families can do) Communication Strategies to Build Collaboration - pdf Conversation with Examples of Joining and Supporting - video Inviting Parents to Talk A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 6 and page 46 (Appendix 2). Reflect on Your Own Attitudes, Values, and Experience (Self-Reflection) As you work to support children and their families, it is important to reflect on how things are going. As early childhood professionals it is important to demonstrate the ability to reflect and think critically about one's work, through self-assessment and self-reflection. Working with children of varying abilities and diverse backgrounds also requires the ability to hold and reflect on multiple viewpoints. It is important to understand that one's own culture, educational background, experiences, and values have an effect on children and families and the lens through which you view each child and family. Caring for and educating young children is no simple task; self-care and self-advocacy are essential to be an effective educator. It is important to plan one's own professional development and help others plan, reflect, evaluate, and develop professionally. Reflective supervision, in which an early childhood professional and her or his supervisor reflect collaboratively, also enhances growth and professional development. Program Practices Establish Program Attitudes and Values (Inclusive Program Policy and Philosophy) An agreed-upon definition of inclusion should be used by the program to develop the program's attitude and beliefs on inclusion. Having a positive attitude of inclusion as a part of a broader program mission statement ensures that all staff operate under a similar set of information, values, and beliefs about the best ways to help infants and young children with disabilities and their families. Once this definition has been created, it is important to develop enrollment policies and other rules that support this definition. A program philosophy or beliefs on inclusion should then be used to create activities and rules aimed at ensuring that infants and young children with disabilities and their families are full members of the early childhood community and that children have many opportunities to learn, develop, and cultivate positive relationships. Create high expectations for every child regardless of ability; expect each child to reach his or her full potential. Sharing expectations can lead to the selection of appropriate goals and can support the efforts of families, practitioners, individuals, and organizations as they implement high-quality inclusion. Additional Resources: For tips on developing enrollment policies, see the following document from the University of Maine Center for Community Inclusion and Disability Studies: Admissions Policies and Practices that Build Inclusive Child Care Communities (for Providers). For more information on the defining features of inclusion, check out the Frank Porter Graham (FPG) CONNECT Module, Foundations of Inclusion. Create Leadership Support, Buy-in and Follow-Through (Professional Standards, Procedures and Systems Changes) Adequate infrastructure increases the likelihood that quality services are delivered to all children and families. When quality practices are used consistently, it is more likely that children and their families will experience positive outcomes. Everyone participating in the care of children in your program should contribute in some way to the development of your program's professional standards and procedures. Successful and quality early childhood inclusion requires support from all levels of staff, and most importantly, program leadership. The role of leadership is essential in implementing large-scale systematic change. It is important that program directors and administrators understand the importance of early childhood inclusion and work with staff, families, and professionals in creating standards, procedures, and systems within their programs that embrace and promote early childhood inclusion. Systems changes may be required in order to promote or improve your program's inclusive practices and/or the quality of those practices. Systems changes should be based on program assessments and address the needs of all children, staff, and families. These changes could potentially include implementation of family engagement efforts, communication plans and procedures, changes in staff training requirements, evaluation of roles within the organization, allowing paid teacher planning time, or implementation of a formal policy development process. Creating an environment that encourages open and frequent lines of communication between staff and program leadership allows for the opportunity to celebrate successes, no matter how big or small, and to identify areas for improvement and additional support. Resources and Tip Sheets: Where Do We Start? A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 40 Growing Ideas Tip Sheets and Resources for Guiding Early Childhood Practices from the University of Maine. Invest in Staff Learning (Personnel Preparation and Professional Development) Consistent and ongoing staff development gives staff the time to think about what they are doing, as well as have the confidence that they are remembering what is being taught and will be able to use new and effective techniques. Whenever possible, training should be provided to all staff, as well as follow-up assistance with classroom teams, and individual teachers or group leaders. Determine who would get the most out of additional training and education on inclusion and what will work to provide learning opportunities related to inclusion. All key people (administrators, teachers/group leaders, families, and specialists) should be included in selecting training topics. In Wisconsin there are number of resources and training opportunities to support early childhood professionals. These tools and trainings include trainings on the: Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards and the Wisconsin Pyramid Model for Social and Emotional Competence and resources like the Wisconsin Early Childhood Collaborating Partners website. For other training opportunities related to inclusion and caring for children with special needs and disabilities, visit our Training, Education, and Professional Development page. Additional Resources: Talking with Staff about Children A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 38 Coaching Current Staff A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 39 Possible Coaching Questions (for staff) - A Thinking Guide to Inclusive Childcare, page 50 (Appendix 6). Evaluate Progress (Program Assessment) Program evaluation and assessment should be used as an ongoing management and learning tool to continually improve the quality of your program. Program assessment that is done on a regular basis can greatly improve practices and procedures for children, families, and staff alike. Quality inclusive systems are created with purpose, planned from the start, and evaluated regularly to foster continuous quality improvement. There are many factors that contribute to program quality, including the organization of physical space, appropriate and acceptable supply of materials, teacher abilities, teaching strategies, teamwork among staff and families, and creating individual adjustments for children within daily routines. Regular program evaluation helps programs identify the quality factors that are strengths and the areas in which extra efforts are needed. Also, a number of tools and resources exist which aim to guide programs in implementing high-quality inclusion practices, and regular program evaluation helps programs identify and use these tools and resources to their best advantage. *This list of best practices was compiled using the following: DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education DEC and NAEYC Joint Position Statement on Early Childhood Inclusion Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute - Quality Inclusive Practices NECTAC Quality Indicators of Inclusive Early Childhood Programs/ Practices. If you have questions or concerns about a child's development (physical, social-emotional, or cognitive), contact: Wisconsin First Step Information and Referral Hotline at 1-800-642-STEP (7837). Information about Early Identification/Screening and Child Find can be found at the Collaborating Partners website.